Stewart Memorial Library: Stockton’s First Library

The Stewart Memorial Library (1889-1891). Courtesy, the Bank of Stockton Archives

The Stewart Memorial Library (1889-1891). Courtesy, the Bank of Stockton Archives

The Steward Memorial Library constructed in 1889 on land donated by Charles Weber was located on Hunter between Main and Market Street, south of the Eureka Firehouse. Frank Stewart was a prominent businessperson who endowed funds in his will for the creation of Stockton’s first library building. It was designed by prominent architect, Charles Beasley who also designed the Agricultural Pavilion, the Imperial Hotel, Sperry Flour Mill Office and the Henery  Apartments, to name a few.

The front of the library was styled with a combination of medieval and classic Greek style architecture that included granite pillars with marble and unusual large “bulls-eye” windows. It was the third largest library in the state, besides San Francisco and Sacramento, and considered truly magnificent for its day. It was only there for three years, as the city grew rapidly during this period and the need for a larger builder was evident. This led to its replacement, the Hazelton Library, also referred to as the “Marble Library.”

Join us this Friday (9/19) at 5pm to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Cezar Chavez Library, as well as the history of Stockton’s Public Library.

Source: A History of the Stockton Public Library by Virginia Struhsaker, Pacific Historian (1980)

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Stockton’s Pioneer Winery: El Pinal Vineyard

Vintage Postcard of the El Pinal Winery (1858-1918)

After describing Stockton’s historic brewery in the last blog, it now only seems appropriate to mention our most famous winery.

El Pinal Winery was the first commercial winery in the region, established by George West in 1858. It was located on the east side of West Lane (named after George) near Alpine close to the Southern Pacific railroad tracks. Today, the vineyard is the site of the El Pinal Industrial Park.

George West was from Massachusetts and came to California in 1849, as so many others did, to discover gold. As the rush faded, his vision of wealth turned toward the rich soil and the growing of grapes. George was not only a pioneer in viticulture but also became one of the most successful and famous wine growers in California during that time.

In the first decade, the grapes were mostly used for table wines but over time, the winery went on to produce more vintage products, including a port that won special premium at the California State Fair in 1867. In 1902, the company incorporated as George West & Son, Frank A. West.  Prohibition forced the closure of the El Pinal Winery in 1918.

Today, there is no evidence of Stockton’s most famous winery and its legendary wine grower, besides the naming of the park and the street.

Source:  George West, Pioneer Wine Grower in San Joaquin County (San Joaquin Historical Society and Museum) by Gerry Howen.

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Stockton’s Brewery History

El Dorado Brewing Company in 1893

There are a few more days left of Stockton Beer Week, and a reminder that breweries were actually one of Stockton’s earliest industries. In the early 1850s, David Mickie operated a brewery on Weber Avenue and Philip Niestrath ran the City Brewery. There were others, such as the San Joaquin Brewery and the Humboldt Brewery, but most of them were short lived.

The most successful brewery was the El Dorado Brewing Company, founded by the Rothenbush family in 1853. The brewery received early recognition for producing “steam beer” which was marketed under “El Dorado Beer.” The brewery grew into a large plant, located on the block between American and Stanislaus, and Park and Oak Streets.

Their most significant product became the award winning “Valley Brew,” which they delivered to many local restaurants and saloons throughout the Central Valley. They remained in business during the Prohibition Era by manufacturing ice, sodas and a near beer called Special Valley (less than 0.5% alcohol).

The California State Fair in 1953 recognized the El Dorado Brewing Company for making a single product for more than a century, at the same location by the same family.  Nevertheless, they were unable to compete with larger breweries and forced to close in 1955.

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The Hotel Stockton: An Architectural Masterpiece

Vintage postcard of the Hotel Stockton mailed on August 23, 1922

After a three-day grand opening celebration in 1910, the first guests arrived at the Hotel Stockton. Our city was an important regional destination and the modern 252-room hotel provided attractive accommodations for visitors. The hotel was one block away from some of California’s greatest theatres at the time, and close to downtown retailers and the business district. The first class hotel provided a relaxing atmosphere with fine dining and dancing on the roof garden, as well as convenient lodging for those traveling to the Sierras and the Mother Lode.

The Hotel Stockton is rich with architectural innovation, including being the first example of mission revival style in California. The five-story hotel was also the first all steel reinforced concrete construction in the Central Valley. The exterior of the building boasts long colonnades, overhanging balconies and a metal roof made to resemble the tiles of the missions. The large roof garden included a pergola and a fountain, and provided guests with incredible views over the Delta region. The hotel’s most distinctive interior feature is the beautiful lobby that includes what was one of the largest public fireplaces in California at the time.

After an expansive restoration effort a decade ago, this grand building remains one of our most distinctive historic possessions. It not only symbolizes Stockton’s early prominence in California but also represents a masterpiece of historical hotel architecture.


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Stockton History at the University of the Pacific


Vintage Postcard of the Hazelton Library (1895-1964)

Every time I walk by the circle of Ionic marble columns located across from the Library on the University of the Pacific campus I think of their origin, the Hazelton Library.  It was Stockton’s first public library funded by Dr. William Hazelton and built in 1895 on the northeast corner of Market and Hunter streets.  

Covered in white marble, this building housed the library for almost seventy years before being demolished in 1964. Its marble Ionic columns were relocated to the University of the Pacific upon request by the University President, Robert Burns.   

I just wish more people knew the historic origin of the columns, there is no sign or plaque explaining its significance to Stockton history. 


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The “City Beautiful” Era in Stockton

Civic Center Postcard (1932), before McLeod Lake was filled (Ron Chapman Collection)

Stockton’s Civic Center was designed during the the “City Beautiful” movement. This movement spawned by Chicago’s World Columbian Exposition of 1893 featured grand scale public buildings of classical architectural style fronting large public plazas or wide boulevards.  Due to immigration and industrialization, many American cities of the time were experiencing rapid growth, increasing poverty and growing decay.  The “City Beautiful” reform movement emphasized order, dignity and harmony. Advocates believed that beautifying cities would inspire civic loyalty and promote social order.  They were also interested in attracting the upper class back to cities for work, business and entertainment. 

The Stockton Civic Center is an exemplary City Beautiful complex.  The Civic Auditorium and City Hall, both completed by 1926, are the most significant buildings in one of the finest civic centers in northern California.  The grand classical style of these two structures with their massive columns, decorated friezes and cornices both face a public plaza.  Prior to the plaza’s construction in 1947, the site was a lake fronting both buildings.  Although smaller in scale, the architecture of the Police and Fire Alarm Station in McLeod Park matches the auditorium and City Hall.  The public library’s architecture is more modern, as the plan to construct it did not develop until 1964 when the “City Beautiful” movement had ended.

The prominence of the Civic Center demonstrates the importance of Stockton’s history and is a lasting architectural treasure of national significance

This article was first published by Alice van Ommeren in the Downtown Stockton Alliance in September 2010.


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On this Day in 1935, Tillie Lewis…

Photo Courtesy: Haggin Museum and Kyle Tobin-Williams

…opened the first Flotill cannery in Stockton on her 34th birthday.

She grew her company (Flo-till) to become the fifth largest canning business in the United States by 1950 and she was referred to as the “Tomato Queen.” The canneries employed many Stocktonians.

Source: Remarkable Women of Stockton (2014) by Mary Jo Gohlke available at local book and museum stores, as well as with on-line retailers.

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The Stockton Theatre Fire on July 4th,1890

The Stockton Theatre on Main and El Dorado Streets (1853-1890)

The Stockton Theatre on Main and El Dorado Streets (1853-1890)

It was on this day in 1890 that the Stockton Theatre located on the southeast corner of Main and El Dorado Streets burned to the ground.  This pioneer playhouse built in 1853 was one of the most successful early theaters of Stockton. The 500-seat venue drew
famous entertainers such as Lotta Crabtree, Edwin Booth and many other early day performers.  At one time Stockton was one of the great theater towns of California. Drama, music and dancing have been a significant part of Stockton’s history and culture beginning as early as the gold rush days with the need to provide entertainment to miners and merchants.

Source: Stockton Memories: A Pictorial History of Stockton, California by R. Coke Wood and Leonard Covello (1977).

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East at Main Street: APIA Mapping Project

A workshop this Saturday, June 28th (2pm-3:30pm) is being co-sponsored by the Little Manila Foundation and the University of the Pacific Benerd School of Education to gather images and stories of Asian and Pacific Islander American (APIA) historically and culturally significant sites throughout the United States and U.S. territories, with a specific focus around Stockton and San Joaquin County. 

East at Main Street is funded by the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training and the National Trust for Historic Preservation. East at Main Street is a crowd-sourced map available on the web and as a mobile application at 51-east-at-main-street.  

So, bring digital or hard copies of photos, flyers, or other materials to pin to the community workshop, or just stop by to see how it’s being done.  The event will on the UOP Campus in the Benerd School of Education (3441 Kensington Avenue) in Room 110C.

More information here –

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Stockton’s Historical Street: Weber Avenue

Vintage Postcard (1909) of Weber Avenue (before Hotel Stockton)

Weber Avenue is one of the oldest streets in Stockton. Gold seekers and supply merchants disembarked from sailing vessels and riverboats along west Weber Avenue, once known as the “Levee.” Many climbed on horses, or aboard stagecoaches and freight wagons, bound to find their fortunes in the foothills. This wide street originating at the waterfront was one of four avenues mapped to run east and west in a street survey of Stockton completed by Major P. Hammond in 1849. The street, named after the city’s founder, became the major thoroughfare of the early business district.

Over the next few decades, the city’s commerce shifted from serving miners to farmers. As the city prospered and grew into a transportation and manufacturing center for the surrounding agricultural area, Weber Avenue retained its importance because of its proximity to the waterfront. Countless farmers traveled this road to bring their crops to the waterfront for shipping, as well as to pick up supplies from the businesses along the avenue. In 1871, the building of railroad tracks on Weber Avenue and a depot on the south bank of the waterfront enhanced freight and public transportation.

Many buildings on Weber Avenue stand as remembrances of the city’s significant commercial development. On the west end, the Sperry Flour Mill office and warehouse once served one of the largest flourmill companies in the state. Traveling west, the sight of the magnificent Hotel Stockton is striking. Completed in 1910, the elegant tourist hotel brought distinction to the streetscape. Although heavily remodeled, the adjacent block includes some of the oldest buildings on the avenue. Construction of Mansion House and the Tretheway Building took place in the late 1800’s. Traveling further east, almost every building provides evidence of Stockton’s extraordinary and interesting past.

Today, Weber Avenue is not only one of the city’s most important streets as it connects the downtown with the waterfront, but also one of its most historical.

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